Water scarcity is one of the main challenges of the twenty-first century. Novel low-cost, bio-based filtration and purification membranes promise increased access to clean water for all. Water use has been growing at two times the price of the populace during the last century. Every 12 months, competition for water resources for ingesting, washing, and sustaining farming and life intensifies. A new project is developing nanomaterials-based water purification membranes for decentralised commercial and domestic water therapy to help relieve the issue. Scientists are designing, developing and testing membrane-based prototypes based on nanocellulose and/or nanochitin, polysaccharides discovered in plants and the exoskeletons of crustaceans. The primary focus is on the removal of toxic chemical compounds such as heavy metal ions, pesticides and fertilisers from contaminated industrial water making use of membranes and membrane modules. The membranes will be evaluated for their suitability for disposal by composting and its effect on environment, at end-of-life. These bio-based functional membranes therefore offer an extremely energy-efficient, cheap, biodegradable, non-toxic and green substrate for water therapy. Using existing industrial processes, the team was able to quickly up-scale manufacturing of nanoparticles (cellulose and chitin nanocrystals and cellulose nanofibres) isolated from bioresources. Nanocellulose and nanochitin have demonstrated satisfactory adsorption of hefty metal ions from water for efficient water purification. Researchers prepared 100 % bio-based membranes from cellulose nanocrystals, cellulose nanofibres and chitin nanocrystals in indigenous type as well as from surface-modified cellulose nanocrystals. Various changes were tested to improve filtration, mechanical properties and adsorption efficiency. The project will assist to recover heavy metals while ensuring high-efficiency decentralised water cleansing, high adsorption prices and high adsorption selectivity. It will additionally feature reuseable antifouling or low fouling areas. The treatment of water toxins will have long-term benefits for individual health and quality of life. This work will lead to brand new products based on green nanotechnology in the form of nanomembranes, filters and adsorbents for water purification that will be much more efficient, cost effective and environment friendly than currently available items. They will offer sustainable solutions for water recycling and elimination, and the recovery of hefty steel ions, fertilisers, medications and pesticides from industrial effluents. The ensuing enhancement in the quality of surface and groundwater, at first in Europe and then at the worldwide level, will have a far-reaching effect on the environment.